Jesus Goes Fishing and Heals
(Luke 5:1-26)

Father God we lift your Name on high tonight and praise you for the mighty things you do. We thank you for the rain that's gently falling now on the thirsty earth. We thank you also for the rain of your Spirit that is quenching thirsty souls and causing us to thrive in Jesus Name. Jesus as we study your life we thank you for caring enough to come to earth as a man and walk where we walk. We praise you that you did signs and wonders among men, although we seek YOU and not the signs. Spirit we rejoice that you were sent to be our comforter and teacher. Train us to be godly we pray as we strive to follow in Jesus steps.

satan we bind you and rebuke you and cast you out of this room, PCs, wires, cabling, ISP's, equipment, in Jesus Name. We declare all your plans null and void in Jesus Name! satan we come against the blindness you try to place in our hearts and the confusion and instead ask the Holy Spirit to give sight and order.

Thank you for all your blessings Lord Jesus! Feed our spirits tonight we ask in Jesus Name. AMEN and AMEN

Athie - Yes Father we praise you tonight and ask your blessing on the Bible study tonight in Jesus name
OlePappy - Father give us insight tonight in Jesus name. AMEN

Last time we had just started on Luke 5 and the miraculous catch of fish. Tonight we'll look at this some more, and then talk about the healing of the leper.

Luke 5:1-2 One day as Jesus was standing by the Lake of Gennesaret, with the people crowding around him and listening to the word of God, he saw at the water's edge two boats, left there by the fishermen, who were washing their nets.

We are told in verse 2 that Jesus SAW the two boats - with what insight! There must have been many boats on the lake that day, but Jesus saw Simon. Do you know that Jesus SEES every one of us? That to Him we are individuals. He sees our every need and will SHOW Himself to us, too, if we'll let Him "get into our boat" - let Him into our every day life.

Luke 5:3 He got into one of the boats, the one belonging to Simon, and asked him to put out a little from shore. Then he sat down and taught the people from the boat.

Simon means "hearing" and what Simon heard taught from his own boat that day would change his entire life. And if we truly hear God's Word, comprehend what it says, and put it into practice, it will change our life too!

Luke 5:4-5 When he had finished speaking, he said to Simon, "Put out into deep water, and let down the nets for a catch." Simon answered, "Master, we've worked hard all night and haven't caught anything. But because you say so, I will let down the nets."

Last time we talked about Simon being a master fisherman - he did it for a living. And had toiled all night. So when Jesus decided to go fishing, the "expert" at first didn't want to comply. Do you know it's a waste of time to argue with Jesus? If He tells you to do something, just do it! Finally Simon agreed to listen.

Luke 5:6-7 When they had done so, they caught such a large number of fish that their nets began to break. So they signaled their partners in the other boat to come and help them, and they came and filled both boats so full that they began to sink.

Aha! the Creator of the fish knew where to cast the nets. The fishermen were amazed at such a large haul from what they thought to be an unproductive time and place.

Now if this had happened to many today, they would have tried to figure out how to exploit such power. They would have made a music video, or called CNN, or bought movie rights or signed a book contract. But what did Simon do?

Luke 5:8 When Simon Peter saw this, he fell at Jesus' knees and said, "Go away from me, Lord; I am a sinful man!"

When we recognize who God really is, see His holiness and might, we ALWAYS become conscious of our sin. This demonstration of Jesus' power and holiness made Simon more aware of his own sinfulness. This is what happened when Isaiah the Prophet saw the Lord:

Isaiah 1:1-2 In the year that King Uzziah died, I saw the Lord seated on a throne, high and exalted, and the train of his robe filled the temple. Above him were seraphs, each with six wings: With two wings they covered their faces, with two they covered their feet, and with two they were flying.

Isaiah 1:3-4 And they were calling to one another: "Holy, holy, holy is the LORD Almighty; the whole earth is full of his glory." At the sound of their voices the doorposts and thresholds shook and the temple was filled with smoke.

Pretty awesome, huh? And what was Isaiah's reaction to this revelation of God? After Isaiah saw the holiness and power of the Lord, he was aware of his own sinfulness: Isaiah 1:5 "Woe to me!" I cried. "I am ruined! For I am a man of unclean lips, and I live among a people of unclean lips, and my eyes have seen the King, the LORD Almighty."

Here Isaiah is confronted with a vision of God's glory, majesty and holiness. His first response was also an awareness of his own sinfulness. But God had the remedy for this:

Isaiah 1:6-7 Then one of the seraphs flew to me with a live coal in his hand, which he had taken with tongs from the altar. With it he touched my mouth and said, "See, this has touched your lips; your guilt is taken away and your sin atoned for."

In the same way when Jesus SEES us and SHOWS Himself to us, we become aware of our sinfulness. But He also provides a remedy to take away our guilt and atone for our sin - the sacrifice of His own life on Calvary.

After we are cleansed, we are SENT to share with others: Isaiah 1:8-9a: Then I heard the voice of the Lord saying, "Whom shall I send? And who will go for us?" And I said, "Here am I. Send me!" He said, "Go and tell this people: …"

As Isaiah was sent on a mission, so were Peter, and James and John. Jesus said, "Don't be afraid - from now on you will catch men." And this is our mission today, to let out our nets into the deep, whether it seems to us to be the right time to catch anything, and to fish for men and women who need to hear the message of truth.

Luke 5:9-10 For he and all his companions were astonished at the catch of fish they had taken, and so were James and John, the sons of Zebedee, Simon's partners. Then Jesus said to Simon, "Don't be afraid; from now on you will catch men."

And everywhere in the Bible that God reveals Himself to man, people react with fear because of holiness and power of God. But Jesus said "Don't be afraid!" Jesus made a tremendous impression on them. They didn't stand around and philosophize or make excuses.

Luke 5:11 So they pulled their boats up on shore, left everything and followed him.

How much this small sentence says! They left EVERYTHING to follow Jesus. There is no indication that they made any preparations at that time to return to their business. EVERYTHING included that miraculous catch of fish. Are we prepared to leave EVERYTHING to follow Jesus? Or are we reserving something, holding something back? The rich young ruler couldn't do it. When Jesus asked him if he'd kept the law, he had. But when Jesus asked him to leave EVERYTHING, he just couldn't.

Matthew 19:20-22 "All these I have kept," the young man said. "What do I still lack?" Jesus answered, "If you want to be perfect, go, sell your possessions and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven. Then come, follow me." When the young man heard this, he went away sad, because he had great wealth.

What are some of the things that Simon, James and John left behind to follow Jesus? They left their boats, fishing occupation, their livelihood, their family, their friends, their homes, the security and predictability of their lives, their possessions, their reputations, the expectations of their family and culture, and the miraculous catch of fish. They felt that Jesus would provide for all their needs, including forgiveness of sin.

LadyofZion† - That is so wonderful...Jesus provides all our needs...if we just let him!

What was more important to them, was that they set aside their "honor" - what the community thought of them. They were supposed to work and support their parents and families - but they answered a higher calling. There are people today who sell all and become missionaries or whatever - give up all the comforts that we feel we have a RIGHT to for the cause of Christ. To me, these people are the real heroes of the faith!

The first thing that these new disciples witness was the healing of a leper.

Luke 5:12 While Jesus was in one of the towns, a man came along who was covered with leprosy. When he saw Jesus, he fell with his face to the ground and begged him, "Lord, if you are willing, you can make me clean."

The term "leprosy" in the Bible referred to all kinds of skin diseases, not only the disease known as "Hanson's Disease". In any case, a person with a skin disease was considered unclean and had to separate himself from everyone else until a priest pronounced him cured and clean. So lepers were avoided and despised, considered cursed and rejected by God. The man "covered with leprosy" obviously needed HEALING. Why, then, did he ask Jesus to make him CLEAN?

LadyofZion† - For Jesus to take away his sins..

Leprosy in Biblical times was more than a disease, it was a state of uncleanness. The Pharisees believed that leprosy was a punishment for sin. If they even touched a leper, they were also considered "unclean" and had to go through a process of ceremonial cleansing. Leprosy made a person into a social and religious outcast. The rejection this man suffered must have made him FEEL unclean, inside and out. Emotionally and mentally he WAS unclean. This must have felt like more of a curse than the physical disease.

onTheRock - Old Timer...the place where they sent them was actually the refuge dump or the place where the city sewage was deposited

Rock, right, they survived on garbage and lived in the streets or in caves. When the man asked Jesus to cleanse him, he needed more than just physical healing, he needed a cleansing inside and out. He needed to have his self-image restored - no longer to be a despised leper, but to be a Son of Abraham again! Mentally he needed a renewing so he would not automatically cringe around normal society or expect rejection.

Leprosy is almost unknown in our society - although there are those with skin disease that are social outcasts - such as psoriasis or lupus. A skin disease, although usually not fatal, is a horrendous burden to bear because people do withdraw from you.

When I worked for the welfare department, I had to go to the home of a woman who had psoriasis all over her body. She shared with me how no one would give her a job, how her husband had left her, and that she avoided public places and lived in a darkened house. Although physically strong, she was totally handicapped by the SOCIAL disability of this disease.

My son is allergic to penicillin. Of course we didn't KNOW this until we gave him some for an infection, and he broke out in yellow and purple welts. He looked like something from outer space. Immediately upon our arrival at the clinic, we were quarantined. And even the nurses, who should have known better, kept their distance! He recovered quickly after treatment, and you can be sure we avoid penicillin.

But it does show something about human nature. The flu is much more contagious than leprosy or psoriasis, but we don't avoid people with runny noses like they "have the plague"!

Now most of us do not have psoriasis or leprosy, but did you know that many are "unclean" inside? They feel filthy, dirty, and rejected. It could be from many reasons: abuse or rejection as a child, a real or imagined defect or handicap, emotional illness, a poor self-image, or unconfessed sin. This "leprosy" is on the inside and is not always evident, but it is progressively destructive just like the skin disease.

Do you feel the need for cleansing tonight? You don't have to tell me what your problems are - tell it to Jesus. He knows about it already, but you need to confess it and get rid of it. And Jesus will answer, "I am willing. Be clean!"

Notice that the leper didn't doubt Jesus' ABILITY to heal, but was not sure if Jesus was WILLING to heal him. The Pharisees were NOT willing to have any contact with a leper, so this leper was used to being rejected by "religious people". It's hard to imagine today the courage that enabled this despised lowly person to approach Jesus. But it was his NEED and his FAITH that led him to Jesus.

Luke 5:13 Jesus reached out his hand and touched the man. "I am willing," he said. "Be clean!" And immediately the leprosy left him.

This verse is one of the most glorious in the Bible! Jesus said , "I AM WILLING". Oh, if we only had the faith and courage to ask for our needs to be met. Hear Jesus say, "I am willing!" Oh, if we would only approach Jesus FIRST before we've let the devil beat us up about something we've done wrong, and ask for forgiveness, and hear Him say "I am willing!"

Jesus is ALWAYS willing to hear and answer. Tell him of your anger, and forgive those who have offended you. Let Jesus declare "Be clean!" over you life and be renewed in mind and spirit!

Notice that when Jesus spoke, "I am willing. Be clean!" that immediately the leprosy left the man. Who was Jesus speaking to? The man had no way to cleanse himself - he was unclean, without hope. But when Jesus, who is Lord even over leprosy, spoke, the leprosy had to go!

Luke 5:14 Then Jesus ordered him, "Don't tell anyone, but go, show yourself to the priest and offer the sacrifices that Moses commanded for your cleansing, as a testimony to them."

We are told nothing about this man except of his need. He was covered with leprosy and needed to be cleansed. We don't know if he was a sinner or a godly man. We do know that he was a Jew because Jesus told him to offer sacrifices at the temple. We don't know if he otherwise tried to keep the Law or not. Since lepers were outcasts, they lived by themselves and usually had to beg for food. It was probably impossible for them to keep the Law.

But we DO know that he CAME and SAW Jesus. And he saw Jesus with the eyes of faith, knowing that Jesus is Lord over leprosy. His only doubt was: Would Jesus be willing to heal HIM? Do you think that there is something unique about YOUR situation that would make Jesus Unwilling to help you? Remember Luke 1:37 "For nothing is impossible with God."

Philippians 2: 9-11 Therefore God exalted him to the highest place and gave him the name that is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

Jesus Name is higher than any other name! What is your need? Does it have a name? Is it called Rejection? Lack of Self-Worth? Worry? Doubt? Fear? Disease? Addiction? Then that name MUST bow the knee to Jesus. Hear Jesus proclaim, "I am willing!" He is LORD and He is WILLING. Come to Him and see Him with the eyes of faith and you will be set free!

After the leper was cleansed, Jesus said: Luke 5:14 Then Jesus ordered him, "Don't tell anyone, but go, show yourself to the priest and offer the sacrifices that Moses commanded for your cleansing, as a testimony to them." Why do you think that Jesus ordered the cleansed leper not to tell anyone?

Jesus wanted the testimony of the healing to be confirmed. There was a procedure in Leviticus 14:1-32 that a leper who believed he was cleansed had to go through to be accepted back into society. So Jesus urged this man to keep the law, to provide further proof of the actual healing, to testify to the authorities concerning Jesus' ministry, and so supply ritual certification so that the man could be accepted back into society.

Just a thought here... when someone comes to Jesus who has been in deep sin, after salvation, they may need extra help in getting back into acceptance again - they may have problems that take a while to resolve. So we need to help them grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ - not condemn them because they aren't perfect yet!

First the cleansed leper had to be examined by the priest. Then he was isolated outside the city for 7 days. Then he had to wash thoroughly, and shave off his body hair. Then sacrifices were made for guilt offerings on the 8th day. Then he was accepted back into society. Jesus wanted to make sure, not only that the man was healed, but also that he was no longer an outcast, separated from family and friends and the holy Temple of God.

In Mark 1:45 we are told that the man couldn't keep his mouth shut! "Instead, he went out and began to talk freely, spreading the news. As a result Jesus could no longer enter a town openly, but stayed outside in lonely places. Yet the people still came to Him from everywhere."

Luke 5:15 Yet the news about him spread all the more, so that crowds of people came to hear him and to be healed of their sicknesses.

I suppose we can't fault the cleansed man for spreading the good news, even if Jesus asked Him not to. But what a testimony it would have been to the religious leaders if the man had followed through with Jesus command!

Z - So, did the priests make the man go through the test, OT? or did they accept the healing from Jesus??

Z, the Bible doesn't say, so we don't know for sure! It's probable that he did though, because they wouldn't have let him back in the Temple until he did.

onTheRock - Isn't that just like our Lord....to want to make sure that we are healed.....but no an outcast either....When the Lord does a work in us....he makes sure He does a complete job.....and it is hard to wait and be patient on His process and His timing....

Things haven't changed much. People still flock to where they think they can get healed, no matter how absurd the techniques may seem to the healthy. And people tend to be "blabbers" rather than "obeyers" don't they?

onTheRock - I have always thought of my life like a bureau of drawers....and My idea of clean up is toss everything on the floor at once and take care of it.....But our Lord in his graciousness takes one drawer at a time and works on it until it is complete....we get anxious to work on the whole set...and people get impatient on Gods process...but when the Lord heals someone HE does it completely.... one drawer at a time

Right Rock, and it's ESPECIALLY hard when it involves our own children! We are so anxious for them to be where we are, and sometimes forget how long it took US to get here!

Savior's Servant - OT-why did Jesus ask him not to spread the good news?

SS, because Jesus wanted him to follow the established procedure to be a TESTIMONY to the priests. But the man got so excited I guess, he couldn't help himself!

Luke 5:16 But Jesus often withdrew to lonely places and prayed. If Jesus felt the need to OFTEN withdraw to lonely places and pray, shouldn't we take time from the stress and bustle of every day life to do the same?

debdeb - God wants to be intimate with us; so we have to be alone so we can learn to hear His voice and no other. God is a gentleman.

Good point deb, God IS the ultimate gentleman - and He is ever so gentle with us. We need to remember that when dealing with others, too.One prophecy of Jesus says "The burning ember he will not quench nor the bruised reed he will not break" - that's gentleness.

Isaiah 42:3 A bruised reed he will not break, and a smoldering wick he will not snuff out. In faithfulness he will bring forth justice.

debdeb - We go through so many trials and tests, but we are never alone. We have to go through tests so we can have a testimony.

Luke 5:17 One day as he was teaching, Pharisees and teachers of the law, who had come from every village of Galilee and from Judea and Jerusalem, were sitting there. And the power of the Lord was present for him to heal the sick.

"The power of the Lord was present for him to heal the sick" - here's that word dunamis again, our root word for dynamite, the mighty, explosive power of God that saves, heals and casts out demons. To heal is iaomai {ee-ah'-om-ahee} in the Greek meaning 1) to cure, heal 2) to make whole 2a) to free from errors and sins, to bring about (one's) salvation. Here we are going to see a demonstration of both meanings of the word.

The Pharisees were a group of separatist Jews numbering about 6,000 in Jesus day, who were highly regarded for their pious lives. They were very influential in society. They were teachers in the synagogues and "self-appointed" guardians of the Law and its proper observance. They had an Oral Tradition that they considered to be of equal authority with the Written Law.

In Mark, Jesus spoke about this: Mark 7:7 "They worship me in vain; their teachings are but rules taught by men.' [quoting Isaiah 29:13] You have let go of the commands of God and are holding on to the traditions of men."

Mark 7:9, 13 And he said to them: "You have a fine way of setting aside the commands of God in order to observe your own traditions! …Thus you nullify the word of God by your tradition that you have handed down. And you do many things like that."

Needless to say, this didn't make Jesus popular with them. But how does this apply today? Do we have religious traditions that set aside the Word of God? Are there portions of the New Testament that you ignore because some teacher has told you to? Do you believe that healing and spiritual gifts were only for the early church because your church has that tradition? Or does your religious group teach "traditions" that are not in the New Testament as equal to the Gospel?

Z - weren't the Pharisees more teachers and accusers of the law rather than observers of the law??

The Pharisees were more like ABUSERS of the Law, I think. They made the Law so hard to follow they couldn't even do it! They were experts in following the OUTER requirements of the law, they even tithed their herbs! But they neglected the weightier matters - such as love, truth and justice. They felt that they, and they alone, were the authorized interpreters of the law to the people. This is one reason they resented Jesus so much.

Now the Pharisees are not opposing Jesus openly YET in Luke chapter 5. The teachers of the law or "scribes" studied, interpreted and taught the law - both written and oral. The majority of the scribes were also Pharisees, so this is why they are usually mentioned together.

Luke 5:18 Some men came carrying a paralytic on a mat and tried to take him into the house to lay him before Jesus.

selah - are we willing to carry our friends to Jesus?

Now this is one of the most beautiful pictures of friendship you will find. There were some men who were carrying another man, paralyzed, on a mat, and were trying to get him to Jesus for healing. Mark tells us that there were four men perhaps each carrying a corner of the mat, or portable bed.

Luke 5:19 When they could not find a way to do this because of the crowd, they went up on the roof and lowered him on his mat through the tiles into the middle of the crowd, right in front of Jesus.

But they had a problem! The crowd was pressing in close and they couldn't get through. Then they came up with a plan, what Spurgeon calls "inventive faith". They couldn't get through the door, but they didn't give up! Houses in that day were usually one story with a flat roof. Steps went up to the roof from the outside of the house, and it was usually used for storage and sometimes a spare bedroom when weather permitted.

These friends came up with a new idea. They carried the paralytic to the roof, took up some of the tiles, and lowered him down, possibly with ropes. They aimed him right in front of Jesus!

Luke 5:20 When Jesus saw their faith, he said, "Friend, your sins are forgiven."

Notice that Jesus SAW their faith! Buddy, this is faith in action! What are you doing today to SHOW your faith to Jesus and the world? Are you tearing up tiles, and positioning yourself in front of the Master? It doesn't say whether the paralytic had faith or not. But the faith of his friends was obvious by their actions.

Sometimes we get caught up in the "traditional" way to witness to our friends, you know take witnessing classes and try to read a script! And we do need to know the scriptures to be able to share them. But are you willing to risk being made a fool of to help your friends get to Jesus? Are you willing to ask the Holy Spirit to show you a new way to show them Jesus?

Jesus didn't criticize them for "destroying private property" or perhaps raining dust down on his head. No, what Jesus noticed was their faith - which got their friend to Jesus no matter what the cost!

Then Jesus said a strange thing. It was obvious that the paralytic needed healing, but Jesus said, "Friend, your sins are forgiven." Why did Jesus say this instead of "Friend, you are healed"?

Wow, it just hit me. Jesus called the paralyzed man friend! I guess he certainly went to heaps of trouble to get to see Jesus. That would have been blessing enough, wouldn't it, to be called Jesus' Friend?

Athie - The Friend's first need was salvation, then healing

Why did Jesus say this instead of "Friend, you are healed"? First of all, Jesus said it to teach the Pharisees and scribes a lesson. And perhaps the paralytic's spiritual needs were the greater problem. It could have been that somehow his sin caused his disease.

OlePappy - but Jesus also knew that the man needed salvation MORE than healing

And our greatest need is salvation, isn't it? I mean illness and disability are not comfortable, but we can get to heaven FIRST, then get healed. But we can't get into heaven at all unless we've accepted Christ as our savior.

Luke 5:21 The Pharisees and the teachers of the law began thinking to themselves, "Who is this fellow who speaks blasphemy? Who can forgive sins but God alone?"

In the Jewish theology of that day, even the Messiah could not forgive sins. Claiming to be able to forgive sins was a claim to deity [Jesus claimed to be God], which the Jews considered to be blasphemy. The sin of blasphemy included reviling the name of God or any other affront to his majesty or authority. The Mosaic Law's penalty for blasphemy was death by stoning.

Jesus not only SAW the faith of the paralytic's friends, but he also SAW the unbelief of the Pharisees. He knew what they were thinking before they even spoke. As God's representative on earth, Jesus had the authority to forgive sins, but of course, the scribes and Pharisees did not accept this authority. Meanwhile the paralytic is still lying there, paralyzed, waiting.

Luke 5:22-23 Jesus knew what they were thinking and asked, "Why are you thinking these things in your hearts? Which is easier: to say, `Your sins are forgiven,' or to say, `Get up and walk'?

It's ironic that in Bible times, people thought that forgiving sins was the harder thing to do. Now we have more difficulty believing in healing. But for Jesus both are EASY to accomplish IF we have faith in Him.

Luke 5:24 But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins...." He said to the paralyzed man, "I tell you, get up, take your mat and go home."

Some religious groups assert that Jesus never claimed to be God. But here is one of many occasions when the Pharisees of that day recognized that Jesus was equating himself with God, and felt He should be punished for it. Only God can forgive sins. Jesus forgave sins, therefore Jesus is God.

For Jesus it is just as easy to forgive as to heal as to cast out demons. And Jesus healed the paralytic to let the Pharisees and teachers know that He also had the authority to forgive the man's sin. The man was told to get up, take his mat and go home. Immediately he obeyed and was healed. He didn't go home the same way he came, in Jesus Name! He came being carried, he left carrying his bed of affliction. He came in pain and agony, he left rejoicing and whole.

Glory! and when we come to Jesus, we won't leave the same as we came! Praise the Lord for his saving, healing, cleansing, and uplifting power!

Luke 5:26 Everyone was amazed and gave praise to God. They were filled with awe and said, "We have seen remarkable things today."

An event like this would be totally amazing even today. And notice that it brought praise to God. Many claim to be able to do signs and wonders in our day, but one test of authenticity is - does it bring praise to God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ? Jesus is still able to do remarkable things today. He is the same yesterday, today and forever! Trust and obey Him and He can do wonders in your life too!

Jesus is totally remarkable. If we could just somehow get our loved ones, friends, and the lost to see how remarkable He truly is! They'd be breaking roofs open too - to hear the glorious gospel!

Well this is a good place to stop. Next time we'll start with the calling of a TAX collector. Jesus even loves IRS agents! He's really awesome!

Z - Amen! Lord, enable us to share the Gospel in a way that our friends, our families and our loved ones will hear and believe!

Father send a hunger and thirst after your Word upon our nation we pray! Let us all be "salty" to make our friends thirsty for Jesus!

kinzie's mom - Shine through us Lord that all can see you and your goodness!

Help us remember the lessons you've taught us tonight and be more eager to love and serve you with gladness and hope! In Jesus Name AMEN
OlePappy - Father, thank You for the blessings received tonight. Thank You for the love You have for us. Thank You for the peace you pour over us in the name of Jesus. AMEN

Next lesson

Remember, whenever God gives us a revelation, the devil tries to steal it from us. Guard your hearts and meditate on what you've learned!
And put it into practice!

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*Picture Sources:

Unger, Merrill F. The New Unger's Bible Handbook. Revised by Gary N Larson. Moody Press, Chicago, 1966: 1984.

The Family Encyclopedia of the Bible, ed. by Pat Alexander.  Chancelor Press, London, 1988.

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Original Lesson 9/21/98
Revised: May 03, 2001.